The most studied resources in Estonia are oil shale (used in energy and chemical industry), peat (agriculture, heat production, medicine), limestone and dolostone, gravel, sand and clay (building material, glass, machinery, paper and cellulose industries, agriculture).
Phosphorite (agriculture, chemical industry) and graptolite argillite (processing industry) were explored during the 20th century, which was followed by mining. Several types of metallic ores (molybdenum, polymetals, pyrite, iron, strontium, uranium, vanadium) existing in the basement (lies at a depth of 100 to 800 m) and in graptolite argillite (claystone containing organic matter) have been specifically prospected and explored.
Information collected with systematic geological mapping provides knowledge on the amount and quality of such resources as glauconite sandstone, natural pigments, lacustrine chalk, lacustrine and marine mud and diatomite. Petroleum and natural gas have also been prospected in Estonia.